English Cloze Test for Bank/Insurance Exams (15 – 03 – 2018)

Mentor for Bank Exams

English Cloze Test for Bank/Insurance Exams (15 – 03 – 2018)
Directions (1 – 10): In the passage given below there are 10 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Each blank has four alternative words given in options A, B, C and D. You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark E as your answer if the word given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required”.
The progress of a well-functioning local democracy depends on a sound fiscal decentralisation framework, (1) diligently with a viable financial reporting system. Regular (2) appeasing of decentralisation is important to inform policy adjustments and choices, to understand the impact of incentives including intergovernmental grants, and to analyze the (3) incident of decentralisation across gram panchayats. As per our study in Kerala, We demonstrate that gram panchayats are experiencing a marked increase in expenditure responsibility without a commensurate increase in revenue authority or a (4) verified growth in Own Sources of Revenue or OSR.
The study shows that Kerala has demonstrated remarkable progress with regard to per gram panchayat receipts and expenditure. If we use per capita data to make an estimate for the entire state, it works out to `19,920 million or 1.8% of the GSDP in 2014–15. (5) Moreover, while the absolute number increased tremendously in 2013–14, the proportion declined to 1.4% of the GSDP. It appears that gram panchayats do not (6) collect in general economic growth due to poor revenue mobilisation and resource allocation.  While their revenue has grown during the study period (2004–14), the share of OSR in total revenue has declined from 10.7% in 2007–08 to 7.43% in 2013–14. The share of tax revenue in total revenue was also not substantial. This indicates a reduction in the (7) autonomy of gram panchayats. State grants and central government grants have played a larger role in panchayat ?nance. However, these grants come with the danger of agency functions overshadowing core functions. In addition, being conditional, these grants affect the autonomy of panchayats and the quality of local democracy. While we found evidence that grants do not directly (H) adhere revenue mobilisation, mobilisation is still relatively low.
Property Tax plays an important role in determining OSR variations and, as is the case in many other countries, it may play an important role in the success of decentralisation vis-à-vis property tax. Property and professional taxes are major sources of OSR for gram Panchayats. The shares of these taxes in the total tax revenue have remained (9) significantly steady over the past decade at 54.7% (property tax) and 43.2% (professional tax), respectively. However, an analysis of property tax potential shows a tax effort of only 60.5% (tax collected/potential revenue). Tax revenue mobilisation potential is certainly high and non tax Revenue potential is also inadequately (10) tapped. There is great ?scal space for gram panchayats to expand OSR, and thereby, improve the quality of services.
a) coupled
b) separated
c) unite
d) needlessly
e) No change required
a) checkup
b) neglect
c) estimating
d) evaluation
e) No change required
a) experience
b) confrontation
c) sense
d) contingency
e) no change required
a) demonstrated
b) established
c) Inapt
d) inappropriate
e) no change required
a) Spitefully
b) However
c) furthermore
d) Besides
e) No change required

a) abstain
b) partake
c) maintain
d) joined
e) No change required
a) independence
b) sovereignty
c) liberty
d) dependency
e) No change required
a) Indenture
b) Shackle
c) Choke
d) Hamper
e) No change required
a) excessively
b) relatively
c) blithely
d) ordinarily
e) no change required
a) considered
b) pierced
c) abandoned
d) affiliated
e) No change required
Answers with Explanations:
1. A) As per the sentence, a well functioning local democracy depends on two things- a sound fiscal decentralization framework and a viable financial reporting system. Hence, we need something that conveys this meaning.
Separated is opposite to what is required.
Needlessly is illogical.
Unite and coupled both seem correct. However, unite is grammatically incorrect.
Hence, coupled, which in this context means along with, is the correct answer.
2. D) As per the sentence, we need to regularly review decentralization to make suitable policy adjustments. Here, appeasing is wrong which means to placate someone.
Neglect is opposite of what is needed.
checkup is right as per meaning but sounds wrong in usage.
Estimating is again right but grammtically does not fit in with the sentence.
Evaluation is the perfect choice here.
3. A) Here, incident means a one-off event while decentralization is an ongoing activity. Hence, incident is incorrect here.
Confrontation and contigency both do not have any meaning. So is the case with sense.
The only viable option is experience.
4. A) The statement wants to convey that there has been an increase in expenditure but it lacks any obvious increase in Own Sources of Revenue. Verified does not fit here.
Established means reputable/ well known and is incorrect. It also does not fit in grammatically.
Inappropriate and inapt are both absurd.
The correct word is demonstrated which means something that can be seen/ is visible.
5. B) If we read the sentence preceding the blank, we notice both the statements are contradicting. Moreover is used as connector for sentences that are in agreement with each other and hence Moreover is incorrect here.
Furthermore and besides are synonyms of moreover.
Spitefully has no relevance.
However is the perfect fit for contradicting sentences.

6. B) The preceding sentences show that although there has been an increase (in absolute terms) in the per gram panchayat receipts and expenditure, when seen as a proportion of GSDP, they showed a tremendous decline. This shows that the Gram Panchanyats do not really play any major role in the growth of the state.
Hence, collect is incorrect.
Abstain is opposite of what is needed and is incorrect
Maintain does not fit in contextually.
Joined is correct but wrong in terms of tense usage.
Partake means to participate/ contribute/ be a part of and is a perfect fit here.
7. E) Independence, sovereignty and liberty all are synonyms of autonomy. However, autonomy is the best fit.
Autonomy means self-rule/ self government and is apt with respect to the context of the passage.
8. D) The preceding sentences convey that grants could do harm and affect the panchayat's autonomy among other things. This sets the tone for the next statement which seems to convey that although there is no evidence to show grants affect revenue mobilization, mobilisation is still relatively low.
Indenture means an agreement and is absurd here.
Shackle means to bind. Although the meaning is relevant, the word itself looks out of context as their is no physical binding/chaining up here. Hence, this is wrong.
Choke means to strangle and is clearly incorrect.
Hamper means to obstruct/ impede/ slow down. This is a perfect fit and conveys the point very well.
9. B) Clearly, significantly is incorrect and the sentence does not make sense.
Excessively too is incorrect contextually.
Blithe means to be carefree and is incorrect here.
Ordinarily conveys that something is the norm in a situation. However, this does not make sense in the present context.
Relatively is a good fit and conveys that property and professional taxes have remained more or less the same over the past decade.
10. E) The statement is grammatically and contextually correct and needs no change.