English Language Practice Questions for IBPS Clerk – Set 21

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Language Practice Questions for IBPS Clerk – Set 21
Directions (1 – 5): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given beside.
The oceans are so vast and deep that until fairly recently, it was widely assumed that no matter how much trash and chemicals humans dumped into them, the effects would be negligible. Proponents of dumping in the oceans even had a catchphrase: "The solution to pollution is dilution."
Today, we need look no further than the New Jersey-size dead zone that forms each summer in the Mississippi River Delta, or the thousand-mile-wide swath of decomposing plastic in the northern Pacific Ocean to see that this "dilution" policy has helped place a once flourishing ocean ecosystem on the brink of collapse.
There is evidence that the oceans have suffered at the hands of mankind for millennia, as far back as Roman times. But recent studies show that degradation, particularly of shoreline areas, has accelerated dramatically in the past three centuries as industrial discharge and runoff from farms and coastal cities has increased.
Pollution is the introduction of harmful contaminants that are outside the norm for a given ecosystem. Common man-made pollutants that reach the ocean include pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, detergents, oil, sewage, plastics, and other solids. Many of these pollutants collect at the ocean's depths, where they are consumed by small marine organisms and introduced into the global food chain. Scientists are even discovering that pharmaceuticals ingested by humans but not fully processed by our bodies are eventually ending up in the fish we eat.
Many ocean pollutants are released into the environment far upstream from coastlines. Nitrogen-rich fertilizers applied by farmers inland, for example, end up in local streams, rivers, and groundwater and are eventually deposited in estuaries, bays, and deltas. These excess nutrients can spawn massive blooms of algae that rob the water of oxygen, leaving areas where little or no marine life can exist. Scientists have counted some 400 such dead zones around the world.
Solid wastes like bags, foam, and other items dumped into the oceans from land or by ships at sea are frequently consumed, with often fatal effects, by marine mammals, fish, and birds that mistake it for food. Discarded fishing nets drift for years, ensnaring fish and mammals. In certain regions, ocean currents corral trillions of decomposing plastic items and other trash into gigantic, swirling garbage patches.
Pollution is not always physical. In large bodies of water, sound waves can carry undiminished for miles. The increased presence of loud or persistent sounds from ships, sonar devices, oil rigs, and even from natural sources like earthquakes can disrupt the migration, communication, hunting, and reproduction patterns of many marine animals, particularly aquatic mammals like whales and dolphins.
1. Which of the following is the reason for degradation of shore lines of oceans as per the passage?
I. Industrial waste
II. Migration from coastal cities
III. Hunting of Aquatic animals
a) Only I
b) Only I and II
c) Only III
d) Only II and III
e) Only I, II and III
2. Which of the following statement/s is/are not true in the context of passage?
I. Marine pollution is the resultant of physical pollution only.
II. Plastic bags, foams etc. are rarely consumed by aquatic animals.
III. The earthquakes can disturb lifestyle and behavior pattern of aquatic mammals.
a) Only I and III
b) Only III
c) Only II and III
d) Only I and II
e) None of these
3. Which of the following is/are a source of solid waste?
a) Pesticides
b) Plastics
c) Organic fertilizers
d) Only (A) and (B)
e) Only (B) and (C)
4. As per the passage, how do nitrogen-rich fertilizers contribute to marine pollution?
a) By releasing chemicals in the water.
b) By absorbing all the oxygen from water, making it near impossible for any marine life to dwell.
c) By raising nitrogen levels in the sea.
d) All of the above.
e) None of the above.
5. Which of the following is/are true as per the passage?
I. Dilution is the key to control pollution.
II. Pollution can make changes in the hunting, migration and communication pattern of dolphins.
III. Solid wastes have fatal effects on marine animals.
a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Only III
d) All the above
e) Either I or III
Directions (6 – 10): In this question four choices are given under each sentence and you are required to select the most suitable choice or combination of choices as stated in the given options A, B, C, D and E to fill in the blank to make the sentence meaningful.
6. Unauthorised leaks, hacking and other cyber crimes have rendered data bases ________.
(a) susceptible            (b) fragile            (c) receptive       (d) vulnerable
a) Only (a) and (c)
b) Only (a) and (d)
c) Only (a) and (b)
d) Only (b) and (d)
e) Only (c) and (d)
7. Economic factors are indeed responsible for an undercurrent of _________ against the ruling BJP.
(a) resentment            (b) aversion       (c) grudge           (d) acrimony
a) Only (a), (b) and (c)
b) Only (a) and (b)
c) Only (b), (c) and (d)
d) Only (c) and (d)
e) Only (a) and (d)
8. Economic issues aside, one of the biggest common concerns between the two countries today is the terrorism threat ________ from Pakistan.
(a) discharging              (b) originating              (c) inhibiting        (d) stymie
a) Only (a) and (c)
b) Only (b) and (c)
c) Only (b), (c) and (d)
d) Only (a), (c) and (d)
e) Only (a) and (b)
9. Yet, even the existing minor penalties are not being imposed, and road conditions remain _________ due to poor engineering.
(a) hazardous           (b) peril            (c) haphazard           (d) unassailable
a) Only (a)
b) Only (a) and (c)
c) Only (b) and (c)
d) Only (a) and (d)
e) Only (d)
10. Constitutional institutions must ________ structures that take care of decision making, appointments, accountability and transparency.
(a) line up            (b) firm up          (c) give up           (d) take up
a) Only (a) and (c)
b) Only (b)
c) Only (b) and (d)
d) Only (c)
e) Only (d)
Directions (11 – 15): In each of the questions, there are five sentences or parts of sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence or part that is correct in terms of grammar and usage and choose the answer accordingly.
a) After a bridge collapsed killed 22 people
b) in Elphinstone Road Station in Mumbai last month,
c) the government of Maharashtra resorted to
d) the populist move of asking an army
e) to repairing the bridge.
a) The remedy is to corporatise the Railways',
b) and create organisational forms that
c) enable large-scale investments those
d) are required for improve safety,
e) upgrade signaling and the qualities of rolling stock.
a) Sustaining and building of
b) this reversal momentum may be
c) more challenging in the coming months,
d) given other economic datum that are
e) a cause of economic concern and some external headwinds.
a) Uttar Pradesh CM Yogi Adityanath cleared
b) his first major test of flying colors
c) as the Bharatiya Janata Party sweeps
d) the civic body polls by the State
e) winning 14 out of 16 mayor post in a four-way contest.
a) The Egyptian military is also been
b) under strain in account of regional
c) developments for the fall of
d) Muammar Qadhafi’s regime in Libya
e) in 2011 and the resulting chaos in North Africa.

Answers with Explanations:
1. B)   2. D)   3. D)   4. B)   5. D)  
6. B) Susceptible- likely to be harmed.
Fragile- Breakable.
Receptive- open to new ideas.
Vulnerable- likely to be harmed.
Choice (b) is usually used for tangible objects that are easily breakable, but databases are intangible. So its use is contextually incorrect here.
Choice (c) is illogical.
Choices (a) and (d) have similar meanings and both contextually satisfy the blank.
7. A) Resentment- dislike or hate.
Aversion- dislike.
Grudge- hard feelings or hatred
Acrimony- nasty speech.
Choice (d) is irrelevant to the context.
Choices (a), (b) and (c) have same meanings and are appropriate choices.
8. E) Discharging – releasing
Originating- getting started
Inhibiting- preventing
Stymie- hindrance
Choices (c) and (d) are irrelevant, as prevention of terrorism will not create troubles for India and America.
Choices (a) and (b) are the most suited choices to fill the blank.
9. A) Hazardous- dangerous, which contextually as well as grammatically suits the blank, as road conditions can be hazardous if they are poorly designed.
Peril – risk/ danger, which is grammatically incorrect.
Haphazard- means without any plan, which is irrelevant in terms of road conditions.
Unassailable- certain, which is again illogical when referring to the state of roads.
10. B) Line up is a phrasal verb which means to make a row.
Firm up is a phrasal verb that means to make clear or evident.
Give up means to quit.
Take up means to start or entertain.
Out of all the given choices, only choice (b) fits in well grammatically as well as contextually.
11. C) Option A - After a bridge collapsed killed 22 people
Collapse’ should be used in its first form, as the verb ‘kill’ is already being used in its second form.
Option B- in Elphinstone Road Station in Mumbai last month,
People were killed ‘at’ the station rather ‘in’ the station. Thus, use of the wrong preposition makes it erroneous.
Option C is absolutely correct.
Option D- the populist move of asking an army
This part has an error related to wrong article usage. Article ‘the’ should be used before collective nouns like Army, Board etc.
Option E- to repairing the bridge.
The Gerund form of verb has been used after an infinitive, which has created an error.
12. B) Option A- The remedy is to corporatise the Railways',
Use of the apostrophe is superfluous here.
Option B is error free.
Option C- enable large-scale investments those
The error is with respect to wrong usage of the pronoun. Thus, ‘those’ is  irrelevant here and needs to be replaced by ‘that.’
Option D- are required for improve safety,
Preposition ‘to’ must be used instead of ‘for’, as for is usually preceded by a gerund.
Option E- upgrade signaling and the qualities of rolling stock.
Here quality is used in the sense of grading the stock. Thus, its singular form must be used.
13. C) Option A- Sustaining and building of
Building on is a phrase which means to bank upon. So , this part has an error regarding incorrect use of the phrasal verb.
Option B- this reversal momentum may be
Reversal momentum is meaningless. Instead, it should either be “reverse” momentum or “reversal of” momentum.
Option C is perfectly fine and error free.
Option D- given other economic datum that are
‘datum’ is the singular form of “data”. Data should be used here as it is followed by a plural helping verb “are”.
Option E- a cause of economic concern and some external headwinds.
Two effects are mentioned for a cause. One is concern and the other is external headwinds. Thus instead of ‘of’ ,”for” is more suitable.
14. A) Option A is absolutely correct.
Option B- his first major test of flying colors
The correct phrase to be used here is “with flying colors.”
Option C- as the Bharatiya Janata Party sweeps
The error here is that of wrong tense usage. The sentence is in simple past tense and thus, the second form of verb i.e ‘swept’ is to be used here.
Option D- the civic body polls by the State
The polls always happen “in” a state. The error is incorrect preposition being used.
Option E- winning 14 out of 16 mayor post in a four-way contest.
The numbers 14 or 16 mentioned over here denotes that posts are more than one. Thus plural form of post i.e. posts is to be used here.
15. D) Option A- The Egyptian military is also been
‘Been’ denotes the tense to be in perfect continuous. Thus use of ‘is’ is incorrect here.
Option B- under strain in account of regional
The correct phrase is “on account of” which means on behalf of.
Option C- developments for the fall of
Since’ is used for definite time while “for”  is for indefinite time. Here 2011 is clearly mentioned in the coming options and thus “since” should be used here.
Option D is error free.
Option E- in 2011 and the resulting chaos in North Africa.
Resulting’ needs to be replaced with 'resulted' as it is a consequence of a past event.