English Language Reading Comprehension and Sentence Fillers Questions (22 – 09 – 2017)

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Language Reading Comprehension and Sentence Fillers Questions (22 – 09 – 2017)
Directions (1 – 5): Read the passage given below and then answer the questions given below the passage. Some words may be highlighted for your attention. Pay careful attention.
The government on Saturday sought to clarify that it has in no way infringed upon the autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India and that it “fully respects the independence and autonomy” of the central bank. This comes a day after the United Forum of Reserve Bank Officers & Employees were up in arms and wrote to RBI Governor Urjit Patel voicing their dissatisfaction about what they perceived was an impingement of the central bank’s autonomy by the government when the Finance Ministry reportedly decided to send a joint secretary to coordinate the RBI’s currency chest operations. “There has been a report in sections of the press that some unions have alleged infringement of the autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India,” the Finance Ministry said in a statement on Saturday. “It is categorically stated that the Government fully respects the independence and autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India.” “Consultations between the Government and the RBI are undertaken on various matters of public importance wherever such consultation is mandated by law or has evolved as a practice,” the statement added. “Consultations mandated by law or as evolved by practice should not be taken as infringement of autonomy of RBI.” “If true, this (the sending of the joint secretary to the RBI) is most unfortunate and we take strong exception to this measure of the Government as impinging on RBI autonomy and its statutory as well as operational jurisdiction,” the union’s letter to Mr. Patel said. “May we request you that as the Governor of RBI, its highest functionary and protector of its autonomy and prestige, you will please do the needful urgently to do away with this unwarranted interference from the Ministry of Finance, and assure the staff accordingly, as the staff feel humiliated,” the letter added. The statement comes at a time when two former RBI governors—Y.V. Reddy and Bimal Jalan—openly raised concerns over erosion of the central bank’s autonomy. RBI and the government have come under a lot of criticism for their handling of the entire demonetisation exercise with many policy flip flops in the 50-day period. Questions have also been raised at the fact that the government initiated the process of demonetisation by suggesting to the RBI board on 7 November to invalidate high value currency. The board met on the evening of 8 November and gave its nod following which Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the cancellation of the legal tender of the old Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes in an address to the nation later that evening. This led to many expressing concern that the government’s move dilutes one of central bank’s core function of issuance of currency.
1. What is the reason of dissatisfaction of the RBI members against the government?
a)    The government's tendency to discuss on matters with the RBI on financial issues.
b)    The government refused to respect the independence and autonomy of RBI.
c)     The Finance Ministry reportedly decided to send a joint secretary to coordinate the RBI’s currency chest operations.
d)    The announcement of demonetization and the criticism it had to face because of it.
e)    Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the cancellation of the legal tender of the old Rs500 and Rs1,000 notes in an address to the nation.
2. What was seen as an action of disturbance from the government previously?
a)    The announcement of demonetization.
b)    The clear statements of the Government not respecting the autonomy of the RBI.
c)     Finance Ministry's justification of its steps as consultation with the RBI.
d)    A lot of flip-flops of policies after the demonetization announcement
e)    Efforts of the Government to establish its supremacy over RBI
3. What had former Governors of the RBI indicated?
a)    The autonomy of RBI was properly maintained.
b)    The autonomy of RBI is getting degraded.
c)     The autonomy of RBI is getting lost with the BJP government.
d)    The autonomy of RBI has always been superficial.
e)    The government plays the actual role and the RBI had to follow it always.
4. What has been the demand of the RBI employees?
a)    To take some action against the government.
b)    To maintain the autonomy of the RBI.
c)     To stop allowing the government consult with the RBI.
d)    To increase the power of the RBI.
e)    To regulate some functions of the government
5. What idea did demonetization create about the RBI and its relationship with the Government?
a)    The employees considered the government's act as a breach of autonomy.
b)    It was seen as an interference of the government in the functioning of the RBI.
c)     It was seen as a productive step on the part of the government.
d)    It was seen as a method to show the supremacy of the government.
e)    It reflected the cooperative relationship between the two bodies.
Directions (6 – 10): Read the passage given below and then answer the questions given below the passage. Some words may be highlighted for your attention. Pay careful attention. 
Manual scavenging refers to the practice of manually cleaning, carrying, disposing or handling in any manner, human excreta from dry latrines and sewers. It often involves using the most basic of tools such as buckets, brooms and baskets. The practice of manual scavenging is linked to India’s caste system where so-called lower castes were expected to perform this job. Manual scavengers are amongst the poorest and most disadvantaged communities in India. In 1993, India banned the employment of people as manual scavengers. In 2013, landmark new legislation in the form of the Manual Scavengers Act was passed which seeks to reinforce this ban by prohibiting manual scavenging in all forms and ensures the rehabilitation of manual scavengers to be identified through a mandatory survey. Despite progress, manual scavenging persists in India. According to the India Census 2011, there are more than 2.6 million dry latrines in the country. There are 13,14,652 toilets where human excreta is flushed in open drains, 7,94,390 dry latrines where the human excreta is cleaned manually. Seventy three percent of these are in rural areas and 27 percent are in urban areas. According to the House Listing and Housing Census 2011, states such as Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal account for more than 72 percent of the insanitary latrines in India. The Government of India has adopted a two-pronged strategy of eliminating insanitary latrines through demolition and conversion into sanitary latrines, and developing a comprehensive rehabilitation package for manual scavengers through a survey. However, while manual scavenging for many may have ended as a form of employment, the stigma and discrimination associated with it lingers on, making it difficult for former or liberated manual scavengers to secure alternate livelihoods and raising the fear that people could once again return to manual scavenging in the absence of other opportunities to support their families. Correctly identifying manual scavengers remains a key challenge. A comprehensive rehabilitation package has recently been put together that includes livelihoods and skill development, access to education for children of former manual scavengers and alternate livelihoods. In 1993, the Government of India enacted the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act which prohibited the employment of manual scavengers for manually cleaning dry latrines and also the construction of dry toilets, that is, toilets that do not operate with a flush. It provided for imprisonment of upto a year and a fine. In 2013, this was followed by the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013, which is wider in scope and importantly, acknowledged the urgency of rehabilitating manual scavengers. The key features of the Act were it prohibited the construction or maintenance of insanitary toilets, engagement or employment of anyone as a manual scavenger, a person from being engaged or employed for hazardous cleaning of a sewer or a septic tank. Its violations could result in a years’ imprisonment or a fine of INR 50,000 or both and offences under the act are cognizable and non-bailable. Manual scavengers are at a double whammy. They are members of lower castes and as such, face enormous discrimination in society, and second, are disadvantaged because they are manual scavengers who clean human excreta. The challenge of rehabilitation is urgent, and requires a comprehensive approach that moves beyond expanding income generation or providing loans, to focus on various aspects crucial to secure the future of the next generation of liberated manual scavengers.
6. What is the central idea of the passage?
a)    To give a clear description on manual scavenging.
b)    To criticize manual scavenging.
c)     An overview of manual scavenging, it’s threats and the measures being taken to eradicate it.
d)    To highlight the  growing challenges of manual scavenging.
e)    To give a personal judgement on manual scavenging.
7. What strategy has the government taken to eradicate manual scavenging? 
a)    Comprehensive Rehabilitation
b)    Retaliation
c)     Demolition
d)    Comprehensive Rescue task
e)    Forming a task Force.
8. What can be inferred about the 1993 Manual Scavengers Act?
a)    It aimed to promote manual scavenging.
b)    It aimed to behold the social reputation of the manual scavenger.
c)     It aimed to condemn the societal pressure on manual scavenger.
d)    It aimed to ensure the dignity, employment of the manual scavenger.
e)    It aimed to malign the status of the manual scavenger.
9. Choose a word opposite in meaning to the word ‘cognizable’ as used in the passage.
a)    Apparent
b)    Audible
c)     Distinct
d)    Distinguishable
e)    Ambiguous
10. Choose a word that best illustrates the meaning of the phrase ‘double whammy’ .
a)    Double faced
b)    A twofold  setback
c)     A twofold success
d)    An owner of 2 properties
e)    A person guilty of two actions
Directions (11 – 15): In each of the following questions a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given, to make the passage complete and coherent (coherent means logically complete and sound).
11. Investment is necessary for economic growth. It could be undertaken by domestic or foreign investors. __________________. If domestic investment is not forthcoming, either because of a profitability crisis in the private sector or a self-imposed restraint on public spending (example, India’s Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act), then we may be forced to attract foreign investment. In other words, in the event of a domestic investment crunch, relying on foreign investment is an option in the short term.
a) However, relying on foreign investment in the long term is not an economically sound policy.
b) However, a probable positive consequence of foreign investment is the inflow of new technology and its subsequent diffusion.
c) However, there are no a priori reasons for favouring foreign investment over domestic investment under normal economic conditions.
d) However, one central character of private investment makes it unreliable in the long term: volatility.
e) It is obvious that investment in a labour-intensive sector will generate more employment than the same investment in a capital-intensive sector.
12. “Universal” is a tricky word. It has an enormous appeal, an unquestioned romance of taking everyone along. Universal human rights, universal access to basic services, housing for all. It is the barometer of inclusion done right. __________________. Often the “universal” is a vanishing horizon and, like all horizons, the mirage is what makes you lose sight of the very real trade-offs and constraints in your way.
a) The irony is that even those who defend such exclusions do not fully realise the cost they themselves pay for them.
b) However, the exclusions are simultaneously socially performed, legally enshrined, and economically reproduced.
c) Yet herein, in the romance, lies the first danger of taking an important move and losing ourselves in a mirage well before the horizon is near.
d) The dark side of the romance is that it’s one of the hardest things to achieve.
e) In Indian cities, one of the biggest blocks to any imagination of “universal” or “inclusive” development is not lack of money, land or technology as is so often imagined.
13. ‘Good governance’ was the cornerstone of the National Democratic Alliance government’s poll promises. While there is an effort to deliver this in many sectors, the functioning of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is at odds with its mandate. ___________________. Since 2011, it has consistently ignored the Supreme Court’s direction on the appointment of a national regulator for enforcing environmental conditions and to impose penalties.
a) It unambiguously mandates that there shall be no destruction or diversion of habitat unless it is for the improvement and better management of wildlife.
b) While it has been periodically expressing its commitment to forest conservation, the reality is, the Ministry has been bending over backwards to meet the demands of ‘development’, compromising India’s ecological security.
c) Another worrisome indicator on unbridled clearances is the strategy of diluting regulations through a slew of guidelines.
d) The most crucial governance challenge for the Ministry is how to balance development imperatives without compromising on ecological security.
e) An objective analysis reveals that the MoEF has turned into a virtual project-clearing house.
14. The fact that AFSPA and representative democracy have co-existed in many parts of India’s Northeast for almost 60 years itself suggests that there is something amiss about the way democratic institutions have functioned in the region. Consider for a moment how AFSPA found roots in post-Independence India. _______________. This claim was something the Indian nation-state could neither ignore nor acknowledge. 
a) Within the representational schemata of the nation-state, the first term on either side of the equality is of a lesser worth than the second.
b) India’s Northeast very much finds itself within such a theoretical and political impasse, caught up, as it is, within a non-space — inside the physical space of India, yet outside the political and epistemic space underlying its imagination.
c) A pattern of exhibition of sovereign power has persisted for the last 16 years.
d) Despite its length and hardship, it failed to receive an acknowledgement from the Indian state, nor did it register in the consciousness of the nation.
e) Its formulation in 1958 was a response to the demands of the Nagas for sovereignty based on the assertion that the Nagas are a nationality, distinct from the Indian nationality.
15. The Chief Justice of India’s high-octane laments about vacancies caused due to the stand-off between the judiciary and government in appointing judges has brought a renewed focus to delays in the judicial system. ____________________. By all accounts, the judicial system is painfully slow — as of December 31, 2015, 51.2 per cent of all cases pending in the subordinate courts have been pending for more than two years and 7.5 per cent for more than 10 years; in the high courts the corresponding figures are 68 per cent and 19.22 per cent. This is unacceptable for any state that promises the rule of law to its citizens. 
a) At the same time, to view the stand-off on judicial appointments and the consequent vacancies that are created through the lens of judicial delays is to miss the wood for the trees.
b) The CJI also believes that it is because vacancies are a product of a systemic lack of incentives for persons of high quality and integrity to take up judgeships.
c) The complexity of causes responsible for judicial delays should make it amply clear that it is merely a by-product when it comes to the vexed question of judicial appointments.
d) The CJI holds vacancies responsible for creating delays, bringing justice delivery to a grinding halt for several litigants.
e) It is little surprise that litigants take a chance before the higher judiciary since securing an admission is often perceived as a game of roulette.
1. C)   2. A)   3. B)   4. B)   5. B)   6. C)   7. A)   8. D)   9. E)   10. B)  
11. C) We can observe that the sentence following the blank mentions ‘domestic investment’ as a first priority as far as investment is concerned, the only option that fills the blank appropriately is option C.
12. D) It the paragraph, the writer through the sentence preceding as well as following the blank presents his or her views while defining the word ‘universal’ in the context. We can observe that while the sentence preceding the blank talks about the positive aspects in the context, the sentence following the blank depicts a possible dark side of it. Clearly, the option D fits the blank most appropriately here.
13. B) The first sentence of the paragraph has the compound noun ‘poll promises’ and the second sentence expresses the ministry’s negligence towards the environmental conditions, as it is implied. Clearly, option B that presents a contradiction between the commitment made by the ministry and the reality, fits the blank most appropriately. The following sentence also supports the chain of thoughts in the paragraph.
14. E) If we read the paragraph carefully we can observe that the sentence preceding the blank talks about how AFSPA got its roots in post-independence in India, thus the sentence that mentions the establishment or formulation of AFSPA would be the one that fits the blank. Among the options given, the only option that is relevant in the context is option E.
15. D) In the opening sentence of the paragraph, the CJI laments about the problems the Indian judiciary is facing today and it can be inferred that he is chiefly concerned about the vacancies in the judiciary system that are creating unnecessary delays. Among the given choices, option D keeps the chain of thoughts flowing as it takes the discussion further in a relevant manner.