English Notes: Nouns

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Notes: Nouns
A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences.
Classifications of Nouns
Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are nouns that refer to specific entities. Writers of English capitalize proper nouns like Lucknow, India, Ravi, Priya.
Common Nouns
Common nouns refer to general, unspecific categories of entities.
Countable Nouns
To linguists, these count nouns can occur in both single and plural forms, can be modified by numerals, and can co-occur with quantificational determiners like many, most, more, several, etc.
For example, the noun cup is a countable noun. Consider the following sentence:
I want to have a cup of coffee.
In this example, the word cup is singular as it refers to one cup
However, cup can also occur in the plural form.
I want to have two cups of coffee.
In this example, the noun cups refers to more than one cup as it is being modified by the numeral two.
In addition, countable nouns can co-occur with quantificational determiners.
I want to have several cups of coffee.
This sentence is grammatical, as the noun cup can take the modification of the quantificational determiner several.
Uncountable Nouns or Mass Nouns
Conversely, some nouns are not countable and are called uncountable nouns or mass nouns. For example, the word water is a mass noun.
The bucket is full of water.
This sentence makes grammatical sense. However, the following example does not.
The bucket is full of waters.
Mass nouns can not take plural forms, and therefore a sentence containing the word waters is ungrammatical.
Substances, liquids, and powders are entities that are often signified by mass nouns such as wood, sand, water, and flour. Other examples would be milk, air, furniture, freedom, rice, and intelligence.
Collective Nouns
In general, collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of something in a specific manner. Often, collective nouns are used to refer to groups of animals. Consider the following sentences.
Look at the gaggle of geese. There used to be herds of wild buffalo on the prairie. A bevy of swans is swimming in the pond. A colony of ants live in the anthill.
In the above examples, gaggle, herds, bevy, and colony are collective nouns.
Concrete Nouns
Concrete nouns are nouns that can be touched, smelled, seen, felt, or tasted. Phone, table, bag, salt, and wool are all examples of concrete nouns.
Your bag is looking very beautiful.  Please pass the salt. Your sweater is made of fine wool.
Concrete nouns can be perceived by at least one of our senses.
Abstract Nouns
More ethereal, theoretical concepts use abstract nouns to refer to them. Concepts like freedom, love, power, andredemption are all examples of abstract nouns.
They hate us for our freedom. All you need is love. We must fight the power.
In these sentences, the abstract nouns refer to concepts, ideas, philosophies, and other entities that cannot be concretely perceived.
Possessive Nouns
Nouns can be possessive and express ownership, usually following the use of “of.”
Most singular possessives are formed by adding an apostrophe and “s.” If the noun is plural, the possessive form becomes “s” and apostrophe.
Singular Common: Dog
Singular Possessive: Dog’s
Plural Common: Dogs
Singular Possessive: Dogs’
Rule 1 : The following words are uncountable and are normally used in the singular form only. The indefinite article "A or An" Should not be used with them. They have no plural forms. 'A/An' not used before them.
Ex : Luggage / Baggage / Breakage / Advice / Furniture / Information / Scenery / Poetry / Work / Soap / Food / Bread / Fish / Paper / Machinery etc.
The Sceneries of Kashmir is very beautiful.
The Scenery of Kashmir is very beautiful. 
Rule 2: The words such as "News / Maths / Ethics / Politics / Phonetics / Economics / Statistics / Measles / Mumps / Rickets / Billiards / Innings" look like plural nouns but give singular meaning. So, they take singular form of verbs.
Economics is an interesting subject. 
But say "His economics are very weak". 
Rule: When Preceded by a possessive adjective, the noun takes a plural verb
Rule 3 : The following nouns are always used in the plural form only
Cattle / People / Police / Electorate / Poultry / Trousers / Scissors / Spectacles / Binoculars / Crackers / Swine / Gentry / Clergy. All these are used with plural form of verbs.
The scissors is blunt.
The scissors are blunt. 
Rule 4 : After the phrases One of / Some of/ Each of / Either of /Neither of / Any of / None of, a plural form of a noun is used.
One of my best friends
One of the biggest cities
Rule 5 : An "Apostrophe" and 'S' should be used with living beings only to show possesion.
The table's legs were broken.
(This is wrong, because the table is a non living thing)
We can say "The legs of the table were broken"