English Language for Bank Exams|| 01 – 02 – 2019

Mentor for Bank Exams

Dear Aspirants,
Welcome to Mentor for Bank Exams. Here is the English Lanugage Quiz to help you practice with the best of latest pattern questions for the upcoming IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk and other bank and Insurance Exams.

Directions (1 – 6): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
It sounds pretty obvious: life is all a game. Charles Lamb (1775-1834) put it rather elegantly: “Man is a gaming animal. He must always be trying to get the better in something or other.” What John Harsanyi and other economists did was to apply mathematical Logic to this human urge and make game theory, as it is called, part of their tool kit. At its humblest level, game theory is useful in saving the players from going mad. In devising a strategy you know that your rival may know what you are planning, and he knows that you know he knows, and soon.... even skilled chess players can feel mentally wounded.
In chess and comparable real-life games, each side has basic information about the other. The problem of Charles Lamb’s gaming animals is that they usually have imperfect knowledge about their opponents. They guessed, or relied on “intuition” or, as Napoleon said of his favorite generals, they were lucky. Until quite recent items, this was the way countries and great companies dealt with their rivals.
Mr. Harsanyi’s contribution to game theory was to show that such games need not be played in a fog, or at least not much. It was possible to analyze such games and provide guidance about the probable moves and their outcomes. This advanced game theory was employed, at least by the Americans, in their negotiations with the Soviet Union on arms control. Kennedy and Khrushchev used game theory in their tussle over Cuban missiles in 1962.
Game theory is widely used in commerce, as happened this year when, with great success, the British government sold licenses for mobile phone services in an auction designed by an Oxford economist. Paul Kemmerer. Some economists are watching with fascination the contest between the European Central Bank and the currency market over the future of the Europe, which has at least the look of an exercise in game theory. A Dutch team of economists applied the theory to international football and concluded that a bad team playing at home is more likely to score than a good one playing away. One effect of game theory is to make economists seem quite human.
As often happens when an idea becomes fashionable, there has been some argument about who first thought to game theory. Mr. Harsanyi, who shared a Nobel Prize in 1994 with two other economists in the same field, John Nash and Reinhardt Selten, was happy to acknowledge that game theory had been around in some form for a longtime. Players of poker, and of course chess, had been using game theory without calling it that. Philosophy has a claim: it seeks to rationalize the behaviour of people with conflicting interests. As a young man in Budapest, Mr. Harsanyi had studied philosophy and mathematics and, to please his parents who ran a pharmacy, he added chemistry.
What triggered his interest in game theory appears to have been the work of John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, who in 1944 published a book entitled “The Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour”. Von Neumann was an American mathematician who, by coincidence, had also been born in Hungary and had attended the same school as Mr. Harsanyi. He and Morgenstern may have been the first to show how the philosophical idea of rational behaviour could be applied to economics. They did not develop the idea. In his short life, von Neumann especially had much other interest, including work on quantum theory and the design of the first electronic computers. In paper after paper, Mr. Harsanyi and his colleagues took the theory further. It is still being polished.
The philosopher in John Harsanyi saw in game theory means of improving the human condition. He promoted the idea that the rightness or wrongness of an action depended on its consequences, an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. The connection between game theory and ethics is a complex one. His book on this theme, Essays on Ethics. Social Behaviour and Scientific Explanation”, is a hard read, just as game theory itself demands lots of tricky mathematics. No one would blame you for sticking to Charles Lamb.
1. What is the author meaning to convey when he says, “even skilled chess-players can feel mentally wounded”?
a) it saves the players from going mad
b) the mathematical logic of the game theory leaves even skilled players wounded
c) that the theory is very complicated
d) chess players find the theory hard to comprehend
e) All of the above

2. The author feels that prior to game theory, companies and countries:
a) relied on guess work when dealing with each other
b) relied on luck rather than scientific analysis
c) made imperfect decisions
d) had no idea how to deal with each other
e) None of these

3. The main contribution of Mr. Harsanyi to game theory is:
a) it made economists seem quite human
b) games need not be played in fog now
c) it provided guidance about the probable moves of opponents
d) it was employed by Americans in dealing with the Soviet Union.
e) All of the above

4. Why does the author say that one effect of the game theory is to make economists seem quite human?
a) because complicated theory could now be applied to real life situations
b) because game theory was used in diverse fields like football and politics
c) because it brought economics closer to the masses
d) because it was a way of adding human element to complicated theories
e) All of the above

5. How did game theory originate?
a) from the works of Harsanyi
b) from John Nash and Rein hard Selten
c) from John Von Neumann and Oskar Morgernoten
d) from games like chess and poker
e) None of these

6. The passage is a/an:
a) review of a book written by Mr. Harsanyi
b) assessment of the work of Mr. Harsanyi
c) summation of the game theory
d) explanation of the game theory
e) None of these

Directions (7 – 10): Rearrange the following sentences to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions that follow.
7. If Sentence (B), “U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, despite warnings at home and abroad, will worsen the Israel-Palestine conflict.” is the first sentence, what is the order of other sentences after rearrangement?
(A) Israel built its seat of power in West Jerusalem decades ago and occupied the East during the 1967 war, and later annexed it.
(B) U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, despite warnings at home and abroad, will worsen the Israel-Palestine conflict.
(C) By breaking with this consensus, Mr. Trump has in effect endorsed the Israeli claims to East Jerusalem.
(D) Palestinians insist that East Jerusalem should be the capital of their future state.
(E) Even though there is a Congressional resolution in the U.S. urging Washington to relocate its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, previous American Presidents avoided doing so given the legal, ethical and political implications of the issue, besides their commitment to a negotiated two-state settlement.
(F) Jerusalem, which houses holy places of all three Abrahamic religions and is claimed by both Israelis and Palestinians, is at the very heart of the dispute.
a) AEFCD
b) FADEC
d) DAEFC
d) AFDCE
e) DCFEA

8. If Sentence (A), “India acquired its first submarine, the INS Kalvari, on December 8, 1967, six years after the Navy acquired its first aircraft carrier in 1961.” is the first sentence, what is the order of other sentences after rearrangement?
(A) India acquired its first submarine, the INS Kalvari, on December 8, 1967, six years after the Navy acquired its first aircraft carrier in 1961.
(B) This level of professional accomplishment in the underwater domain has been realised against many odds and much of this has been possible due to the dedication and rigorous professionalism of the human resource that lies at the core of the submarine arm, from its formative years to where it is now poised.
(C) Concurrently, the Navy is also invested in building conventional boats in India through partnership programmes with foreign suppliers.
(D) Thus it is appropriate that the President’s Colours will be presented to the dolphin arm on Friday in Visakhapatnam.
(E) For the record, India is the first country in the world to move straight to designing and building an SSBN, without moving up the scale from conventional boats and then SSNs.
(F) In the intervening decades, the nation and its Navy have graduated to designing and indigenously building SSBNs — the INS Arihant.
a) BEFCD
b) FBDEC
c) DBEFC
d) FCEBD
e) DCFEB

9. If sentence (B), “Please understand this, we haven’t time to make this change gradually.” is the last sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following sentences does not fit into the paragraph formed after rearranging other sentences?
(A) And that has been going on; people have said you must change, you must act, you must change your mind, your heart, you must be something totally different.
(B) Please understand this, we haven’t time to make this change gradually.
(C) And we have reached a point when we have no time at all.
(D) This has been preached for thousands of years by men who were serious, very earnest, as well as by charlatans who were out to exploit people.
(E) Everybody is responsible for war because we are human beings and we have created wars; that’s part of our life.
(F) For man to change radically, fundamentally, there must be a mutation in the very brain cells of his mind.
a) A
b) E
c) F
d) D
e) C

10. If sentence (D), “In the July-September quarter consumption expenditure grew 6.5%, the weakest growth rate recorded in eight quarters.” is the last sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following sentences does not fit into the paragraph formed after rearranging other sentences?
(A) Rural wage growth has weakened which, in turn, dragged down the overall growth in private consumption expenditure.
(B) The slowdown in rural wage growth is linked to the difficulty experienced in construction and manufacturing sectors.
(C) Expectedly, RBI’s fifth monetary policy for the financial year left key interest rate unchanged at 6%.
(D) In the July-September quarter consumption expenditure grew 6.5%, the weakest growth rate recorded in eight quarters.
(E) But of more significance was the story coming out of the agricultural sector, the source of livelihood for close to half the population.
(F) Its analysis showed that the central bank expects inflation rate to rise a tad over the next few months.
a) E
b) F
c) B
d) A
e) D

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