English Language Practice Questions for IBPS Clerk – Set 11

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Language Practice Questions for IBPS Clerk – Set 11
Directions (1 – 10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given beside it.
It is difficult to compare countries because various factors such as size, culture, history, geography, natural endowments, geopolitics and internal polity come into play. There are some goals which can be achieved by smaller countries; but sometimes smaller countries find it difficult to embark upon certain big technological plans even if they have the funds, because the size of the domestic market is too small. If we consider the bigger countries, the closest comparison to India is China, though there are many crucial differences.
The Chinese vision is to prepare the country for entry into the ranks of mid-level developed nations by the middle of the twenty-first century. Acceleration of the nation's economic growth and social development by relying on advances in science and technology is pivotal in this.
Documents describing the Chinese vision state that science and technology constitute premier productive forces and represent a great revolutionary power that can propel economic and social development. It is interesting to note that the main lessons the Chinese have drawn from their past performance is their failure to promote science and technology as strategic tools for empowerment. They also point to the absence of mechanisms and motivations in their economic activity to promote dependence on science and technology. Similarly, they hold that their scientific and technological efforts were not oriented towards economic growth. Consequently, they conclude that a large number of scientific and technological achievements were not converted into productive forces as they were too far removed from China's immediate economic and social needs. The Chinese vision is therefore aimed at exploiting state-of-art science and technology to enhance the nation's overall power and strength, to improve people's living standards, to focus on resolving problems encountered in large-scale industrial and agricultural production and to effectively control and alleviate pressures brought on by population, resources and the environment. By the year 2000, China had aimed at bringing the main industrial sectors up to the technological levels achieved by the developed countries in the 1970s or 80s and by 2020 to the level they would have attained by the early twenty-first century. The aim is to bridge the overall gap with the advanced world. There is a special emphasis on research and development of high technologies that would find defense applications. Some of these technologies are critical for improving the features of key conventional weapons. Some technologies are meant for enhancing future military capabilities. Other efforts are aimed at maintaining the momentum to develop capabilities for cutting-edge defense technologies. They call for unremitting efforts in this regard with the aim of maintaining effective self defense and nuclear deterrent capabilities and to enable parity in defense, science and technology with the advanced world. 
1. Comparison between two countries becomes difficult because:
I. The countries differ in their internal political systems.
II. Each country has its own demography.
III. The countries with homogenous backgrounds are many in number.
a) Only I
b) Only II
c) I and II
d) All the above
e) None of these
2. What is the goal of China to be accomplished by the middle of 21st century?
a) To become one of the most developed nations.
b) To surpass the level of all middle-level developed nations by a good margin.
c) To be the most influential superpower.
d) To be the most developed nation in Asia.
e) None of these
3. What, according to the Chinese vision, can boost socio-economic development of China?
a) Research and development
b) Science and technology
c) Premier productive forces
d) Minds united with revolutionary powers
e) None of these
4. Which of the following fields has particularly been valued by China?
a) Building high quality infrastructure
b) Innovation in the field of Medicine
c) Defence applications based on high technologies
d) Agricultural production
e) None of these
5. Which of the following have the Chinese identified as the pitfall/pitfalls from their past?
I. Lack of orientation of science and technology towards economic growth.
II. Lack of mechanism in their economic activities to promote use of science and technology.
III. Excessive emphasis on science and technology as a strategic measure for empowerment.
a) Only I
b) Only II
c) Only III
d) I and II
e) All the above
6. Which of the following is/are the expected result(s) of China’s new visions?
I. To augment people’s standard of living.
II. To tackle effectively pressures brought on by the environment.
III. To utilize modern technology for bringing the latent power under control.
a) I and II
b) II and III
c) I and III
d) All the above
e) None of these
7. Why can’t smaller countries take up big technological planning?
a) They are economically weak to fund their ideas.
b) They have smaller domestic market size.
c) Smaller countries lack technological knowhow.
d) None of these
e) Nowhere mentioned in the passage.
8. Which one of these words is similar to the word ‘endowments’highlighted in the given passage?
a) Powers
b) Measures
c) Habitats
d) Findings
e) Gifts
9. Which of the following words is the antonym of the word ‘Pivotal’highlighted in the passage?
a) Irrelavent
b) Unmanageble
c) Irreparable
d) Inauspicious
e) Irritating
10. Which of the following words is the antonym of the word ‘parity’ highlighted in the passage?
a) Impropriety
b) Indecency
c) Inequality
d) Similarity
e) Homogeneity
Directions (11 – 15): In the following passage, some of the words have been left out, each of which is indicated by a letter. Find the suitable word from the options given against each letter and fill up the blanks with appropriate words to make the paragraph meaningful.
Digital India can be the prime ____ 11 ____ behind making a reality of the government’s promise of minimum government, maximum governance. Such a transformation requires technology to be firmly ____ 12 ____ into government, something that the Digital India project lists as one of its foremost objectives. Embedding technology into government ____ 13 ____ will do three things; transform the government and make it more transparent and efficient, transform the lives of citizens especially those at the bottom of ____ 14 ____ pyramid and make our economy more efficient and competitive. A 2014 McKinsey Global Institute report predicts that the large- scale ____ 15 ____ of technology through Digital India positions India with the biggest opportunity yet to accelerate economic growth.
11. a) factors  b) might  c) force  d) impact  e) hindrance
12. a) stuck  b) planted  c) routed  d) inserted  e) embedded
13. a) offices  b) hierarchies  c) processes  d) details  e) organisation
14. a) hypothetical  b) proverbial  c) mythical  d) classified  e) infamous 
15. a) adaptation  b) enhancement  c) monitoring  d) anticipation  e) production

Answers with explanation:
1. C) The author, in the very beginning of the passage, clearly mentions a number of demographical and political factors, the presence of which makes it difficult to compare countries. Statement I and II hence hold true. However, statement III can’t be inferred from the passage.
2. E) As per the passage China wants to reach the level of middle-level developed nations by the middle of 21st century. Hence, option B which states that China aims at surpassing the level of middle-level developed nations can be eliminated.
None of the other options can be inferred from the passage either.
3. B) It can be easily inferred from the reference that the author regards “Science and technology” as ‘premier productive forces for socio-economic development of China.
4. C) It can easily be inferred from the reference that it is the development of ‘Defence applications based on high technologies’ which is specifically given importance to by China.
5. D) Statement I and II can be inferred from the references last paragraph, 3rd and 4th sentences while statement III contradicts what is being stated in the passage.
6. A) Statement I and II can be easily inferred from the reference last paragraph, 6th sentence. Statement III, however, is nowhere mentioned in the passage.
7. B) It is evident from the reference 1st paragraph, 2nd sentence, that a smaller domestic market size hinders smaller countries to take up big technological planning.
8. E) Endowment (Noun):
An endowment is a gift. It is a quality or ability possessed or inherited by someone.
Ex. His natural endowments were his height and intelligence.
Synonyms: quality, characteristic, feature, attribute, facility, faculty, ability, talent, gift, strength, aptitude, capability, etc.
9. A) Pivotal (Adjective): of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else.
Ex. Japan plays a pivotal role in the world economy.
Synonyms: central, crucial, vital, critical, focal, essential, key, significant, important, determining, decisive, deciding, etc.
10. C) Parity (Noun):
the state or condition of being equal, especially as regards status or pay.
Ex. There should be some parity of incomes between rural workers and those in industrial occupations.
Synonyms: equality, equivalence, uniformity, sameness, consistency, correspondence, congruity, congruence, etc.
11. C)   12. E)   13. C)   14. B)   15. A)