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English Practice Questions | IBPS PO | IBPS Clerk | IBPS RRB
Directions (1 – 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some questions.
The internet is an entirely human phenomenon. It is an unfathomably vast interconnected sea of computers that hold roughly the entire sum of human knowledge to this point. It’s as available to the wealthiest billionaire as it is to the kid on library WiFi, browsing on his cheap Android phone. What keeps the internet open and equal is a principle called “net neutrality,” which is as much a technological tool as an economic argument and a moral stance. It is also a principle that is periodically threatened. The latest assault comes from current FCC director, who wants to change how internet companies are regulated, a move that could prove disastrous for net neutrality.
Internet Service Providers, or ISPs, are supposed to direct traffic indiscriminately, no matter if the user is looking up a niche blog about armadillo ranching or trying to stream a video from Netflix. This is how the internet, as technology, was designed: to transfer packets of information across vast distances as quickly as possible, regardless of what those packets may contain. Net neutrality is a practice that governs the behaviour of ISPs. Their modems connect customers’ devices to the internet writ large in exchange for a fee. For ISPs, it’s a pretty good deal already: Many places in the United States have limited options, so the customer base is locked-in to an extent. Without neutrality, an ISP could instead dictate usage terms to both sites and to users. An ISP could charge customers more to stream videos, and at the same time charge Netflix to make sure its videos stream as fast as Hulu videos and YouTube.
Columbia Law professor Tim Wu, then at the University of Virginia law school, coined the term “net neutrality” in a 2003 paper, in an attempt to define an already-understood vision of the internet. To Wu, net neutrality is not just a way to manage traffic on the internet, but a fundamental philosophy about how innovation happens.
Net neutrality adherents “see innovation process as a survival-of-the-fittest competition among developers of new technologies,” It is noted that people supportive of this evolution-through-competition model are suspicious of any structure that instead lets the people who control access to the internet dictate how the competition shakes out. In essence, the best possible internet is one where consumers themselves choose what applications, uses, and sites are successful. And they voice that choice by visiting those sites. Without net neutrality ISPs are in a position to fix the game, by taking money from one company to provide better streaming for their video—even if that content wouldn’t normally be fastest to stream. Net neutrality violations are as follows-blocking voice-over-IP services, redirecting search traffic, slowing of traffic, throttling all streaming traffic except to one specific site, and more. While net neutrality has been a term since 2003, and the current rules enforcing it were put in place in 2015, ISPs have tried to work around it for years, and sometimes succeeded, only to be caught later.
Without rules that allow the FCC to enforce net neutrality at the start, violations will have to be reported to the FTC instead, which can investigate and pursue legal action after-the-fact, but cannot pre-empt abuses. The most-durable worry about a net without neutrality is the creation of “slow lanes,” where the ISP delivers traffic from some sites at normal speed, and from other sites at much slower speeds. If a site is loads too slowly, users likely won’t keep going there, so the loss of neutrality becomes a way for ISPs to force sites to pay for normal delivery or risk low traffic and eventually obsolescence. This fear was at the heart of the 2014 Internet Slowdown, a protest that asked sites to put a “loading” symbol, and then directed users to contact Congress and ask it to protect net neutrality. Using the video services we like at a discount, or pay full price for other data. That’s antithetical to the principles of net neutrality.
1. Without neutrality, an ISP could instead dictate usage terms to which of the following?
a) both servers and to hub.
b) both hob and to traffic point.            
c) both control access and to fundamental philosophy.                  
d) both sites and to users.                       
e) both content and to traffic.    
2. Who did first coin the term “net neutrality” and where?
a) Jordan Law professor Thomas Andrew at the University of California law school.
b) America Law professor Tim Wu at the University of Barcelona law school.          
c) Columbia Law professor Tim Wu, at the University of Virginia law school.          
d) Norway Law professor Fernando Alvarez at the University of Canada law school.              
e) Indonesia Law professor Kofi Annan at the University of Virginia law school.
3. What according to the author is the best possible internet all about?
a) It is where consumers themselves choose which applications are successful.
b) It is where consumers themselves choose what is good or bad at internet.                   
c) It is where consumers themselves choose what cookies should be blocked.                   
d) It is where consumers themselves choose which uses, and sites are successful.               
e) Both 1 and 4       
4. Which of the following is/are the “Net neutrality violation” as per the passage mentioned above?
a) blocking voice-over-IP services
b) redirecting search traffic                     
c) slowing of traffic            
d) throttling all streaming traffic except to one specific site                       
e) All of the above.
5. Choose the appropriate title of the passage?
a) Internet and human being.                 
b) How internet companies are regulated.                  
c) Reasons to care about Net neutrality which is under threat.                 
d) Internet: an entirely human phenomenon.            
e) Survival-of-the-fittest. 
6. Why violations will have to be reported to the FTC instead?
A. because it can investigate.
B. because it can pursue legal action after-the-fact.
C. because it can pre-empt abuses.
a) Both B and C                  
b) Only C                  
c) Both A and B                  
d) All A, B and C                  
e) Only A      
7. Choose the word most SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold, as used in the passage.
Obsolescence
a) veracity                
b) masquerade
c) fathom                 
d) dying out             
e) acknowledgement        
8. Choose the word most SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold, as used in the passage.
Antithetical
a) anticipatory                    
b) contradictory
c) inflammatory                  
d) symmetry            
e) coronate  
9. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Suspicious
a) furtive                  
b) ostentatious                   
c) dubious                
d) believing
e) petulant   
10. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Vast
a) sterling                 
b) little                      
c) temerity               
d) timid
e) huge         
Answers:
1. D)   2. C)   3. E)   4. E)   5. C)   6. C)   7. D)   8. B)   9. D)   10. B)