Reading Comprehension Quiz | IBPS | RBI | NICL

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Reading Comprehension Quiz for IBPS, RBI, NICL and other bank and insurance exams
Directions (1 – 10): Read the passage given below and then answer the questions given below the passage. Some words may be highlighted for your attention. Pay careful attention.
Keep a tomato cool in a refrigerator and it will stay fresh far longer than it would at room temperature. Accidentally freeze it, though, and you will reduce it to a disgusting mush.
A similar problem plagues the storage of vaccines. About six in ten of those procured by UNICEF, the UN’s children’s fund, must be stored at a temperature between 2°C and 8°C. Generally, the focus of efforts to do this is on the top end of the range, with the establishment of “cold chains”, the links of which are refrigerators on the journey from factory to clinic, to stop vaccines overheating. Less effort is put into making sure a vaccine never gets too cold. But a vial of vaccine that has been accidentally frozen, and then thawed, may lose its potency as surely as one that has been warmed up.
A study published this week in Vaccine, by Celina Hanson of UNICEF and her colleagues, suggests that the over chilling of vaccines is alarmingly common. Dr Hanson and her team reviewed research that measured how often vaccines were exposed to temperatures below the lower limit. They combed through papers published between 2006 and 2015, and found 21 relevant studies conducted in 18 countries. Though not a representative global sweep, the studies in question covered both rich countries and poor ones, from several continents. Among the places they examined were America, China, India and a number of African states.
Intriguingly, the problem of over chilling was worse in the rich world than the poor. The papers Dr Hanson looked at reported that, on average, 38% of vaccine shipments in rich countries and 19% of those in poor countries had experienced temperatures that were too low. Regardless of a country’s wealth, about a third of its vaccine-storage units, which ranged from small refrigerators to huge cold rooms, were chillier than was safe.
Routine monitoring weeds out some frozen vaccines. Nurses in poor countries use a “shake and look” test to spot tell-tale crystals, for example. But the share of compromised vials that goes undetected and ends up in ineffective jabs is unknown. Studies that examine the consequences further down the line are rare, but those that exist suggest freezing matters.
According to one such study, which was conducted in America and published in 2011, places with a higher proportion of refrigerators with temperatures below zero also had higher rates of pertussis (whooping cough). A ten-year-old piece of research from Mongolia, where temperatures in winter can be as low as -55°C, found that children vaccinated against hepatitis B in winter months were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed subsequently with that disease than were those vaccinated in other months.
Another problem of vaccine distribution, “stock-outs”, is also the subject of a paper in this week’s Vaccine. Patrick Lydon of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and his colleagues analysed data from 194 countries that had been submitted to the WHO and UNICEF between 2011 and 2015. In an average year, a third of these countries had at least one vaccine out of stock at national level for a month or longer. Stock-outs were most common in sub-Saharan Africa, where bungled procurement and tracking of vaccines is common. But they were far from rare in Europe, as well. In an average year one European country in six reported a stock-out.
Mr Lydon and his colleagues did not collect data on how many children missed jabs as a result of stock-outs, so the consequence of such laxity is unknown. But childhood vaccination is important. The WHO calculates that vaccines already prevent between 2m and 3m deaths a year, but that this figure would rise by a further 1.5m if all children received the recommended jabs. That careless handling and careless stock-management are making this goal harder to achieve is a scandal.
1. Who has published a paper on overchilling of vaccines?
A) WHO
B) UNICEF
C) UNESCO
D) UN
E) USA
2. What is the percentage of vaccines that need to be stored between temperatures 2 and 8 degree celsius?
A) 40
B) 50
C) 60
D) 70
E) 80
3. In what kind of a journal will you find the given passage?
A) Economics journal
B) Medical journal
C) Nature journal
D) Technology journal
E) Cannot be inferred
4. What is the meaning of the phrase 'combed through'?
A) Give a quick glance
B) Revise
C) Look after
D) Examine carefully
E) None of the above
5. What assumption does the author make in this sentence: 'Intriguingly, the problem of overchilling was worse in the rich world than the poor.'
A) Overchilling is a reality in poor countries.
B) The problem of overchilling must be experienced by poor countries more than it is to affect rich countries.
C) The problem of overchilling must be experienced by rich countries more than it is to affect poor countries.
D) Storage of vaccines is a problem in rich countries.
E) None of the above
6. What according to the passage can help achieve an elimination of polio from an under developed country?
A) Availability of medicines
B) Availability of specialised doctors
C) Childhood vaccination
D) Free healthcare
E) None of the above
7. What is the opposite of the word 'laxity'?
A) Easy
B) Flexible
C) Malleable
D) Strictness
E) None of the above
8. In an average year, a third of these countries had at least one vaccine out of stock at national level for a month or longer. Which of these could help prevent such a situation?
A) Parents should be informed why vaccination is important for their children.
B) The government must ensure the availability of important vaccines.
C) The private sector should be given the responsibility of storing vaccines.
D) The developed countries should send vaccines as aid to the developing countries.
E) None of the above
9. Why are the storage units of vaccines not considered safe?
A) Vaccines needs to be stored at temperatures above 10 degree celsius to maintain its potency
B) Vaccines should not be stored at very low temperatures as it loses its potency
C) Vaccines are being tampered with
D) Vaccines are getting stocked out
E) Cannot be inferred
10. What is the meaning of the word 'plagues' according to the context of the passage?
A) Afflict
B) Torture
C) Trouble
D) Harass
E) All of the above
Solution:
1. B) The passage states that the paper on overchilling of vaccines has been published by UNICEF.
2. C) Since 6 out of 10 vaccines need to be stored between the mentioned temperatures, the required percentage is 60%.
3. B) Since the subject matter of the passage deals with vaccines that are closely related to the field of medicine, we can infer that the journal is a medical journal.
4. D) The meaning of the phrase 'comb through' is to examine carefully'.
5. B) Since the author has used the word 'intriguingly' it means that he is surprised to know that the problem of overchilling is more rampant in rich countries than poor countries. Thus option 2 is the correct assumption.
6. C) Polio can be eliminated from an under developed country with the help of childhood vaccination.
7. D) The meaning of the word 'laxity' is 'lack of strictness'. Thus the correct opposite is 'strictness'.
8. B) The problem of stock out is not uncommon in developed countries. Thus option 4 will not help to prevent the situation. Childhood vaccination is no doubt important but it will not lead to an increase in supply of the vaccines. Private sector may not be fully efficient in storing the vaccines and lead to stock outs. If the government can ensure the availability of important vaccines, then the situation of a stock out can be prevented. Thus option 2 is the correct answer.
9. B) The storage units of vaccines in most countries were chillier than safe because low temperatures destroy its potency.
10. E) The verb 'plague' means to cause continual trouble or distress to. Thus all of the given words are synonyms.