English Quiz on Paragraph Summary (New Pattern) for SBI PO

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Quiz on Paragraph Summary (New Pattern) for SBI PO
Directions (1 – 10): In each question below, a paragraph is given and alternatives to its summary are stated in the options. Choose the alternative which best describes the passage.
1. Racing probably will continue to provide technological advances in small increments, because boat racing, like auto racing, has always been the cutting edge. What is learned on the racecourse eventually shows up in the recreational boat. New 'hardware' includes hull forms, sail forms, and innovative materials of every kind in every part of the boat. Electronics are evolving based on military and space technology, and it is now possible for sailors to know their location to within 10 feet (3 meters), no matter what ocean they are on. These new developments—in materials, in technology, and in boats that sail more comfortably—make sailing today easier, safer, and more fun. New and constantly evolving computer software is making the sport ever more economical. Sailboats tomorrow will be stronger and cheaper, and there will be more choices of types and sizes.
i. Racing is a popular sport among sailors and has lead to cutting edge developments in the way sailboats are now made and used, which in turn is making the sport more enduring and fascinating 
ii. Modern sail boats come equipped with new hardware and computer software which makes them very economical, safe and easy to use
iii. The biggest reason for the use of sail boats is the cutting edge advancement in the way new materials and technologies have been harnessed by the racers.
a) Only (i) is true
b) Only (ii) is true
c) Only (iii) is true
d) Both (i) and (iii) are true
e) None of these
2. Chimpanzees possess a brain structure resembling a similar area in the human brain that is thought to control language, according to a study published in the January 9, 1998, issue of Science. Experts said the study challenged long-held assumptions about the evolution of language in humans and raised new questions about the ability of chimpanzees to communicate. The human brain generally exhibits a slightly enlarged area in the left hemisphere called the planum temporale (PT), a structure apparently involved in the processing of visual symbols and speech. Since the 1960s scientists have argued that the PT was necessary for language and may even constitute a uniquely human evolutionary adaptation. The new study is the first to demonstrate that the structure exists in another species, the chimpanzee.
a) Scientists are ruminating over the question whether it is possible that other primates, such as chimpanzees, also have language and the ability to learn a language due to a certain area of their brain resembling that of a human brain
b) Chimpanzees, according to scientists, can easily learn a new language due to their brain structure being identical to that of humans
c) A new study has confirmed that the brain structure of chimpanzees closely matches that of humans and that they too can learn a new language
d) A certain portion of the brain which is involved in the processing of visual symbols and speech has evolved more in humans than in chimpanzees
e) None of the above
3. Flight data recorders (FDRs) and cockpit voice recorders (CVRs), commonly known as black boxes, are devices used to investigate the cause of an aviation accident. Orange-painted and crash-proofed, FDRs and CVRs preserve vital information, such as the airplane’s speed and altitude, and conversations between the pilot, copilot, and air traffic controllers. When an aviation accident occurs, investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) often use the information collected by the FDR to create a computer animation of the accident. Combined with the conversations and noises recorded by the CVR, this animation often assists the NTSB in reconstructing the events that led to the accident. CVRs typically monitor four channels: the pilot and copilot’s microphones, radio communications with the aircraft, and the cockpit area microphone.
i. A black box is composed of Flight data recorders (FDRs) and cockpit voice recorders (CVRs), and helps in determining the exact reason of any aviation accident.
ii. A computer animation of the accident is created which is then combined with the conversations and noises recorded by the CVR in order to determine the cause of the accident.
iii. When an aviation accident occurs, officials usually begin their investigation by attempting to locate the black boxes as these devices record not only the conversations of the pilots and air traffic controllers, but also track details of the movement and behavior of the aircraft
a) Only (i) is true
b) Only (ii) is true
c) Only (iii) is true
d) Both (i) and (iii) are true
e) Both (i) and (ii) are true
4. A prerequisite for the growth of urban society was that food supply had to expand. This was achieved through more effective domestication, more land cultivation, and more intensive productive strategies. One significant aspect of the urban revolution was the crystallization of the concept of private property and incentives for producing an agricultural surplus. This fundamental transformation in social dynamics also is related to two other fundamental processes in urbanism—emerging industry and trade and increasingly hierarchical government. With the establishment of a sedentary village life, it became possible for individuals to assemble more material possessions. It was in the interest of the elite to foster industry and trade because this led to the production of prestige goods that reinforced their high status. Archaeology and history have demonstrated repeatedly that where large groups of people came together, they favored hierarchical forms of government over simpler egalitarian alternatives.
a) The way social structures have evolved over the years is reflected in the hierarchical forms of government and the crystallization of the concept of private property
b) Expanding food production, emerging industry and trade, and increasingly hierarchical governments—as well as the resulting changes in social relations—were the major forces behind early urbanism.
c) Agricultural surplus helped individuals to assemble more material possessions and led to the emergence of industry and trade. It also led to a hierarchical form of government
d) Both Archaeology and history point towards the fact that agriculture, industry and trade are the three important pillars of any society which favors a hierarchical form of government.
e) Increasing food supply leads to urbanization, which in turn result in the emergence of industry and trade.
5. Members of hate groups see themselves at war with the federal government. Unlike more conventional criminals, many do not care if they are outmanned or outgunned. In some cases they want to die and offer themselves as martyrs to the cause. Many believe they are responding to a higher calling. Rather than obey laws, they resist them as a matter of principle, even to the death. Many national and regional watchdog organizations monitor the activities of hate groups and their followers. These organizations see hate groups not as a fringe phenomenon but as a serious threat to the country's democratic values. The difficult questions for these organizations however remain: How many people belong to hate groups? And what type of person joins such an organization or identifies closely with one? These questions are difficult to answer because many hate group organizations operate underground and closely guard their membership lists.
a) Hate groups who resist laws as a matter of principle are generally secretive and hence the authorities face unusual challenges in monitoring their affairs and preventing violent acts.
b) Hate groups are a threat to a country’s democratic values and hence various national and regional watchdog organizations monitor the activities of hate groups and their followers
c) It is very important to ascertain the reasons of violence of hate groups so that they can be reformed.
d) The closely guarded membership list of these hate groups comprises of fringe elements who do not care if they are outmanned or outgunned
e) None of the above
6. Sustainable is not yet a word with a clear-cut agricultural definition. It has been defined in many ways, but at its core lies a kind of farming that is, in a commonly used phrase, “economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially acceptable”—a kind of farming that encourages the farmer to earn a decent living growing good food on healthy land. Talking to researchers, policymakers, and farmers over the past year and a half, I've heard again and again the caution that there is no single approach to sustainability; there are many approaches. But what has changed in recent years is this: A broad effort has emerged on farms and at research institutions to discover which farming approaches are truly viable, sound, and acceptable and how they can be put to use out on the land. Behind this effort lies the awareness that the enormous yields of conventional farming have come at a high environmental and social cost, a cost we're only now learning to acknowledge.
i. Sustainable agriculture is a multi-pronged approach in which environmental and social costs are considered along with productivity.
ii. Sustainable agriculture is yet to get a clear cut agricultural definition and research institutes are still trying to discover its benefits
iii. There is no single approach to sustainability and hence it is very difficult to find a technique that is both socially and economically viable
a) Only (i) is true
b) Only (ii) is true
c) Only (iii) is true
d) Both (i) and (iii) are true
e) Both (i) and (ii) are true
7. Naturalists have been staggered by the Amazon’s diversity ever since the first European researcher set foot in the South American rain forest more than 200 years ago. Those naturalists, of course, hailed largely from temperate climes, where forests typically support no more than 50 to 60 species of tree. The Amazon, they quickly discovered, is far more lavish: twice as many species of tree can easily be found in an acre or two. And these plants support many times more species of bird, insect, and mammal than are found on an equivalent piece of temperate real estate. In one day at one site in the Amazon, entomologists gathered 440 species of butterfly—more species than can be found in the entire eastern United States. But despite the recognition that the Amazon is one of Earth’s great centers of biodiversity, the underlying causes of its richness remain unknown.
a) The rich diversity of the amazon forests gained attention only after its exploration by the European researchers
b) For a budding naturalist Amazon forest is the best work site given the rich biodiversity it supports
c) The Amazon rain forest is home to such a rich variety of plants and animals but researchers do not seem to exactly know why
d) The Amazonian forests has more species than can be found in the entire United States
e) None of the above.
8. A simple way to make a vaccine would be to grow vast numbers of the selected strains, inactivate them so that they cannot cause infection and combine them in a single preparation. Unfortunately, the strains that are selected tend to grow slowly in the laboratory and are thus difficult to mass-produce. To overcome this obstacle, scientists begin by basically inserting immune-stimulating proteins—hemagglutinin and neuraminidase—from the surface of selected strains into a form of influenza virus that will grow quickly in the lab. For each strain, they infect chick embryos with both the fast-growing and the chosen virus. Many of the virus particles made by the embryos grow rapidly but now display the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase spikes of the strains expected to cause this year’s epidemics. These high-growth re-assortments are then isolated and delivered to vaccine manufacturers, who mass-produce them in more chick embryos.
i. Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase are the best available immune stimulating proteins today and scientists worldwide rely on their effectiveness
ii. Mass production of the chosen strains becomes difficult due to their slow growth in the laboratory. To prepare for an epidemic outbreak, researchers and manufacturers are developing vaccines that can be produced rapidly.
iii. When contemplating the prospects for flu drugs, observers might reasonably wonder whether the disease would be better controlled by a universal vaccine.
a) Only (i) is true
b) Only (ii) is true
c) Only (iii) is true
d) Both (i) and (iii) are true
e) Both (i) and (ii) are true
9. People of widely different cultures have long regarded comets with fear and dread. The unheralded, unpredictable appearances of these ephemeral celestial visitors were believed to be omens of disaster for rulers, realms, and entire populations. Comets, it was thought, signaled or caused wars, revolutions, plagues, and other calamities. Halley's Comet made an appearance in 1066, which just happened to be the year that William the Conqueror crossed the English Channel from Normandy and won the British crown by defeating King Harold II. The episode is vividly illustrated in the medieval Bayeux Tapestry, which tells the story of the Norman conquest. In one scene awed courtiers gaze at the comet and then tell Harold of the evil omen—which in his case indeed proved fatal. Modern scientists may not believe in omens, but they have come to realize that comets, which are only mountain-sized bodies, are capable of causing worldwide disasters as terrible as any that were imagined of old—and paradoxically might also be responsible for our very existence.
a) Halley’s Comet, which appeared in the year 1066, was thought to be responsible for the defeat of King Harold II.
b) Modern scientists do not believe in omens but many people around the world still do
c) Modern scientists believe that Comets are solely responsible for our existence on earth and that comets can cause widespread disaster.
d) The appearance of comets had been fatal throughout history and they proved to be omens of wars, revolutions, plagues or other calamities.
e) The history of human responses to Comets has been a combination of both awe and dread with even modern scientists recognizing their capacity to cause disasters.
10. In a natural disaster—a hurricane, flood, tornado, volcanic eruption, or other calamity—minutes and even seconds of warning can be the difference between life and death. Because of this, scientists and government officials are working to use the latest technological advances to predict when and where disasters will happen. They are also studying how best to analyze and communicate this information once it is obtained. The goal is to put technology to effective use in saving lives and property when nature unleashes its power with devastating results. Disaster prediction is more than just forecasting the future with advanced technology—it is also a process of providing scientific information to the government officials and other decision makers who must respond to those predictions. In general, the process has three phases. First, there is the challenge of forecasting the event itself. A second important challenge is communicating the forecast to decision makers. The third part of the process is the use of predictive information by decision makers.
i. Scientists and government officials are using the latest technological advances in order to always predict disasters accurately and prevent any loss of life and property
ii. The advanced means of forecasting natural disasters and of communicating disaster information to the public coupled with public awareness and proper planning can help in minimizing the havoc that disasters can wreak.
iii. The use of latest technology in predicting disasters has made it very convenient for decision makers and government officials to take necessary actions.
a) Only (i) is true
b) Only (ii) is true
c) Only (iii) is true
d) Both (i) and (iii) are true
e) Both (i) and (ii) are true
Answers:
1. A) Statement 2 describes a part of the passage and not the summary. Statement 3 is incorrect as the advancements in the way new materials and technologies have been harnessed by the racers is not the biggest reason for the use of sail boats. Only statement 1 correctly encapsulates the passage as it talks about how the sport of boat racing has led to the usage of advanced technology and materials in the production of sail boats which in turn is helping the sport become more economical and fascinating.
2. A) Statement B is eliminated as we cannot infer from the passage that the brain structure of chimpanzees is identical to that of humans. Statement C is eliminated because the passage does not say that the new study has ‘confirmed’ that chimpanzees can learn a new language. Statement D cannot be deduced from the passage as it has not been explicitly mentioned. Statement A is correct in the light of the above passage and summarizes what the passage tries to convey.
3. C) Statement 1 is ruled out because we cannot conclude that the black box helps in determining the ‘exact’ reason of any aviation accident. Statement 2 is just a part of the passage, not the summary. Only Statement 3 aptly covers all the points in the passage and provides a gist.
4. B) The given passage illustrates the process of urbanization and the forces that helped it materialize. We find that agriculture, emerging industry & trade and the increasingly hierarchical government structures were the major factors that led to early urbanism. Only statement B correctly encapsulates this idea. Statement A and C do not summarize the passage. Statement D cannot be deduced from the passage. Statement E is incorrect as according to the passage emergence of industry and trade led to urbanization and not vice-versa.
5. A) The given passage discusses the ideology of the hate groups and how they are a menace to the society. It further talks about how it is difficult for authorities to monitor them since they operate very secretively. All these points are covered under statement A while all the other statements discuss just some part of the whole.
6. A) Statement 2 is incorrect as the benefits of sustainable agriculture are already known. What researchers are trying to find out is how to put these farming methods to use on the land effectively. Statement 3 has no direct bearing with the passage. The passage does not talk about sustainable agriculture being difficult to be put to use. Only statement 1 encapsulates what the passage is trying to convey.
7. C) The passage talks generally of the richness in the biodiversity supported by the Amazon. It concludes by pointing that despite all the research and recognition, the causes for this richness could not be ascertained. Statement A cannot be directly inferred from the passage. Statement 2 is eliminated as the passage speaks nothing about Amazon forests serving as a work-site to ‘budding’ naturalists. Statement D just makes a part of the passage and does not summarize it. Only statement C expresses the gist.
8. B) The passage starts by explaining a simple way to make a vaccine. It goes on to point that it is a slow process and a faster method is then recommended. Statement 1 cannot be inferred from the passage as nothing has been said about Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase being the best immune-stimulating proteins. Similarly statement 3 has no bearing with what is expressed in the passage. Only statement 2 expresses the passage correctly
9. E) The passage talks about the different opinions people across the ages had about the comets. In the olden times, they were considered to be ominous and bring bad luck. The passage illustrates this with the example of the Norman conquest. The passage concludes by saying that even modern scientists believe in the power of comets to cause worldwide disasters.
Only statement E summarizes it properly. Statement A and B are only a part of the passage and not the summary. Statement C is incorrect as Comets are not ‘solely’ responsible for our existence on earth. Statement D is incorrect as we cannot conclude from the passage that the appearance of comets had been ‘fatal throughout history’.
10. B) Statement 1 is incorrect as it cannot be inferred from the passage that scientists can always predict disasters ‘accurately’ and ‘prevent any loss of life and property’. Statement 3 does not summarize the essence of the passage as the passage does not talk about the ‘convenience’ caused to officials due to latest technology used in predicting disasters. Only statement 2 covers all the main points and summarizes the passage.