English Notes: Pronoun

Mentor for Bank Exams
English Notes: Pronoun
INTRODUCTION
A word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. she, it, this ).
CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUN
PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Refers to a specific person or thing that changes bits form to indicate person, number, gender and case.
Subjective personal pronouns- eg- you, she, he, it
Objective personal pronouns- eg- her, him, you, me
Possessive personal pronouns- eg- mine, yours, hers
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself, for example, John cut himself. In English they all end in -self or -selves and must refer to a noun phrase elsewhere in the same clause
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession or ownership. Some occur as independent noun phrases: mine, yours, hers, ours, yours, theirs. An example is: Those clothes are mine.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Indefinite pronouns, the largest group of pronouns, refer to one or more unspecified persons or things. One group in English includes compounds of some-, any-, every- and no- with -thing, -one and -body, for example: Anyone can do that. Another group, including many, more, both, and most, can appear alone or followed by of.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, what, which and that) refer back to people or things previously mentioned: People who smoke should quit now.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that?
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: Demonstrative pronouns (in English, this, that and their plurals these, those) often distinguish their targets by pointing or some other indication of position; for example, I'll take these.
Rules for usage of pronouns
Rule 1: A Pronoun in the nominative form should be compared with the same form of the pronoun.
Eg- He is better than I (am)  (Two Nominatives are compared)
Rule 2: A Pronoun in the objective case is used after "Let / Between / Any Preposition"
Eg- Let you and me play (You and me are objects)
Rule 3: When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it should be used in the singular form.
Eg- The herd is grazing in the field.  (As a Whole)
Rule 4: When two singular nouns are joined by "and", refer to to the same person, the pronoun used in their place should be singular in form. 
Eg- The Collector and Magistrate has done his best.
Rule 5: A singular pronoun should be used when two singular nouns are joined by either or / neither nor
Eg- Either Ravi or Gopal should give his presentation
Rule 6: A pronoun in the plural form should be used when two nouns of different members are joined by "or" or "nor"
Eg- Either the Principal or his teachers have attended their duty
Rule 7: The distributive pronouns "Either / Neither / None / Any / No one" are used with singular verbs.
Either / Neither -   Used for two Person / Things
None / No one / Any - Used for more than two person / things
Examples:
Either of the two girls is diligent. 
Neither of the brothers is handsome. 
None of the four sisters is sincere. 
Any of the four men can do it. 
Rule 8: The Reciprocal pronouns "Each other / One another"
Each other - For two persons
One another - For more than two persons
Example:
The two sisters hate each other.
The five brothers love one another.
Rule 9: The word "Who" as a relative pronoun is used in the nominative case, takes a verb.
Eg- The people who smoke and drink do not survive long